Klondike & Alaska Gold Rush Prospectors

01 Rise & Fall of Empires

Thucydides Trap – Rising & Declining Power • Thucydides Trap & China • Signs of Decline • Napoleon – Comment on letting China Sleep

Thucydides Trap, Graham Allison, Napoleon, Peloponnesian War, Athens, Sparta, U.S. & China

Rise & Decline of Recent Empires

Decline of China • Rise and Decline of the British Empire • Rise of the US – The Empire of Liberty • Decline of the European Union • China’s Reawakening as Predicted by Napoleon in 1817 • Longevity of Modern Empires

Napoleon, in 1817, said…“Let China sleep, for when she wakes, she will shake the World” … “in a war with China, Britain would doubtlessly, at first, succeed” … “but China will learn from these defeats” … “and decide to render themselves equal to them and build a fleet that will eventually defeat their Western adversaries.”

Decline, Rise, Modern Empires, British Empire, China, U.S. Empire, USSR, Russia Empire, Relative GDPs, Nixon Gold Standard, Opium Wars

Longevity of Past Empires Lasting 100s to 1000s of Years

List of Empires, Carthage, Armenia, Chola, Pandyan, Parthia

02 Origins of Gold

Extraterrestrial Origin • Deposits on Earth • Gold vs. Silver in the Earth’s Crust • Price of Gold & Silver • Tectonic Subduction & Gold Deposits • Volcanic Eruptions

Molten Earth, Gold Extraterrestrial, Gold Meteor Shower, Moon Craters
Gold:Silver Ratio, Price of Silver, Earth’s Crust
Price of Gold relative to Silver

Agricola, Carlin-Trend Gold Deposit.

Agricola’s Mining Book 1500s • Silver Mining • Revival of Coinage • Silver Thaler •
Precursor to the Maria Theresa Thaler,Spanish Peso – Piece of Eight, Spanish Dollar, US Silver Dollar, etc.

Agricola, Georg Bauer, Minerology, Joachimstalthaler, Silver Thaler, Geology
Carlin Trend Map, Carlin Camp, Open Pit Mine Map, Gold Deposit

03 Bacteria, Insects & Gold

Gold deposition • Gold Chloride & Gold Thiosulphate • Deactivating Toxins • Biofilm of Bacteria • Insects & Finding Gold

Bacteria Gold Deposition
Bacteria Gold Deposition
Insects & Finding Gold, Plants, Ants, Debris
Insect & Plant Presence in Finding
Mineral Deposits

04 Magic of Gold

Magic of Gold – Physical & Chemical Properties

Physical Characteristics & Chemical Properties • Periodic Table • Specific Gravity • Noble Metals

Nome Beach Gold, Alaska Gold, Gold Rush, McCord Museum, Herbert Hoover Gold, Aurum

Purity of Gold, Hallmark, Testing Gold, Weights & Scales.

Gold Alloys • Assay • Weighting • Purity • Hallmark • Gold Bars • Jewelry • Gold Leaf • Testing of Gold & Silver • Mercury • Quicksilver • Touchstone • Placer Gold • Acid Streak Test • Touchstone • Casting

Hallmark, Roman Silver Bar, Gold Leaf, Johnson Matthey, US Assay Bar, Fine Silver Ingot
Weights & Scales

Weights & Scales

Weights • Precision Scales • Balances • Building a Balance • Analytical Balance • Electronic Scales

Weights, Scales, Precision Balance

05 Alchemy

Alchemy & Gold

Theory of Transmutation • Elixir of Life • History of Alchemy • Four Spirits • Six Bodies • Sulfur • Mercury • Prima Materia • Purification • Aquafortis • Retort • Classification of Minerals • Paracelsus • Glauber • Albertus Magnus • Thomas Aquinas • Roger Bacon • Sir Francis Bacon • Sir Isaac Newton • Exorcism

Alchemy, Scientific Method, Mercury

06 Coining

Coining – Casting & Striking

Augustus Saint-Gaudens • Striking • Casting • Forgery of Coins • Chinese Tree Money – Cash • Knife Money • Metal Nomenclature – Aurum (AU gold), Argentum (AG silver), Electrum (EL gold-silver) • John Hull – First Colonial Mint • Hoards • Coining Glossary

Coin Production, Coin Minting, Augustus Saint-Gaudens Gold Coin, Milling

Striking Coins – Greece, Rome & Middle Ages

Striking Coins – Greece, Ptolemaic Egypt, Rome & Middle Ages • Aluminum Coins • Dumps • Mint Marks • Countermarks • Overstrike • Seigniorage • Counterfeiting • Electrotypes • False Dies • Die Production • US Mint Coin Production

Striking Coins, Goldsmith, Die, Anvil, Hammer, Mallet, Balance, Coin, Forgery, Casting, Bronze, Paestum

07 Pre-Coin

Stone Age • Copper – Bronze Age • Iron Age • Value of Copper & Iron • Rise of Silver & Gold • Pre-Coin Chronology • Babylon • Silver Pieces • Samarian • Minoan • Mycenaean • Egypt • Chinese Cast Bronze • Irish Celt Gold Rings • Ramses the Great • Sea People, Collapse of Civilizations • Oldest Gold Mine • Cyprus & Copper • Cowrie Shell Money • Iron Wire • Nails • Wampum

Pre-coin, Stone Age, Arrowhead Money, Stone Tools, Bronze Age

08 First Coins

Amazons • Lydia, Croesus • Electrum • Persia • Anatolia • Aristotle – What is Money? • Ancient Greeks • Coining Privileges • Gold vs. Silver • Material Used as Coins • Tea Brick Money • Salt • Leather • 2700 years of Chinese Coins • Knife Money • Jade Disks • Ban Liang Coins

First Coins, Lydia, Pactolos River, Electrum, Herodotus, Amazons, Croesus, Alyattes, Trojan Wars, Mermnad Dynasty

09 Athens “Owl”

Athens Rise & Fall – Owl

Athens Rise & Fall • Aegina – Turtle Coin • Solon & Populist Tyranny • Archaic Silver Coins • Greco-Persian Wars • Stater • Delian League • Athenian Empire • Pericles & Long Walls • Athenian Hegemony • Peloponnesian War • Athenian Plague • Sicilian Expedition & Defeat • Debasement of Owl Coins • Persian Gold Bribes • Arcadian League • End of Athenian Owl & Introduction of “Fiat” Bronze Coins

Athenian Owl, Silver Tetradrachma, Athena Goddess, Greek Helmet, Pallas Athene, Minerva, Hegemon, First Trade Currency

Rise of Macedonia

Macedonia’s Rise • Philip II • Corinthian (Hellenic) League Dominates Greek City States • Alexander the Great • Alexander’s Silver Tetradrachm replaces Owl as Trade Coin • Death of Alexander • Alexander Successor Coinage

Death of Alexander, Athenian Coins, Mithradates VI, Pallas Athena, Hellenistic Age

10 Greek Cities & Carthage

Ancient Chronology • Asia Minor • Ionia • Isle of Rhodes • Central Greece • Illyria • Peloponnesus • Corinth • Northern Greece • Macedonia • Thrace • Thasos • Rhodes • Black Sea • Istros • Magna Graecia • Tyre • Phoenicia • Kyrene • Punic War • Arabia • Hellenistic Age

Greek City States Map, Carthage Punic War Coin, Syracuse, Magna Graecia, Hispania Citerior, Greece Map

Sicily, Syracuse, Carthage

Silver Coinage • Sicily • Syracuse • Carthage • Iberian Mines • Roman Expansion & Start of Roman Silver Coinage

Sicily Coins, Syracuse Coins, Carthage Coins, Peloponnesian War, Athenian Empire

11 Alexander the Great & Successors

Macedon Kingdom Coins • Alexander I • Alexander II • Philip II • Alexander III • Invasion of Asia Minor • Battle of Granicus • Defeat of Darius III • Alexander’s Silver Tetradrachm & Alexandrine Coins become Trade Coins for 300 Years.

Alexander the Great Coins, Alexandrine Trade Coins, Macedonian Kingdom, Macedonia, Darius III, Persia, Cyrus the Great, Alexander III

Alexander the Great Trade Currency

Alexander’s Silver Tetradrachm Trade Coin • Young Heracles • Persia • Alexander’s Empire & Alexandrine Coins

Alexander the Great, Silver Tetradrachm, Alexander’s Empire, Alexandrine Coin,

Post Alexander the Great Coins

Diadochoi – Successor Dynasties Hellenistic Kingdoms • Thrace – Lysimachos • Bithynia • Seleucid Empire • Parthian Empire • Bactrian Empire • Tyre Silver Teradrachm – Shekels

Macedonian Kingdom, Demetrios Poliorketes, Lysimachos Coin, Thrace coin, Diadochoi, Ptolemy, Persian Empire, Hellenistic Kingdoms

Ptolemaic Egypt

Ptolemy I Soter Satrap & Pharaoh • Gold Stater • Pompey • Cleopatra • Caesar • Antony • Octavian • Battle of Actium

Ptolemy Coins, Ptolemy I Soter Coin, Ptolemy Coins, Cleopatra Coin, Tyre Coin

12 The Celts

Celtic Coins

Silver Tetradrachm Copies • Danube Celts • Dacia • Maroneia • Gallic Celts • Gaul • Lutetia • Parisii • Philip II Celtic Copies • Gold Stater • Caesar’s Invasion of Gaul • Trajan Dacian Wars

Celt Coins, Danubian Celt Coins, Celtic Coins, Gaul, Philip II Coin, Celtic Barbarian Europe

13 Roman Republic

Roman Republic – Rise of Empire

Etruscans • Romulus & Remus Rome’s Founding Fathers • Kingdom & Republic Chronology • Gauls Sack Rome • Copper & Brass Money • Aes Rude • Aes Grave • Asses

Founding of Rome, Rise of Roman Republic, Romulus & Remus, Founding Father Story, Fasces, Aes Signatum, Aes Grave

New Coinage & Chronology

Silver Victoriatus • Silver Denarius • Gold Scripulum • Gold Victoriatus • The Mint – Juno Moneta • Pontifex Maxumus • Punic Wars – Carthage – Hannibal • Social Structure – Social Wars – Slavery • Italia Revolt • Propaganda Coins • Gaius Marius • Sulla • Optimates vs. Populares • Pompey the Great • Pirates Sack Rome’s Port – Rome’s 9/11 • Pompey – Limitless power to solve pirate “problem”

Silver Denarius, Roman Drachm, Litra, Silver Victoriatus, Punic War, As, Etruria, Gold Scripulum, Quadrigati, Aereus

Social Wars – Caesar in Rome

Civil Strife • Caesar Pontifex Maximus • First Triumvirate • Caesar & Gallic Wars • Caesar in Rome • Civil War – Caesar vs. Pompey • Caesar & Cleopatra • Populist Caesar in Rome • Caesar’s Propaganda Coins • Octavian Adopted by Caesar

Social Wars, Caesar’s Triumph, Caesar Pontifex Maximus, Caesar enters Italy

Death of Caesar & Brutus & End of Republic

Caesar’s Regicide by Brutus – Tyrannicide • Triumvir Civil War • Propaganda Coins • Ides of March Coin • Defeat of Brutus • Octavian Kills Old Families – sells their properties for gold to make coins to increase the Money Supply • Octavian Eliminates Rivals & Becomes Emperor Augustus • New Coins stabilize the Economy • Pax Augustus on the Mediterranean • Start of Roman Empire

Tyrannicide Coins, Caesar Regicide, Brutus, Cassius, Ides of March Coin, Eid Mar Coin, Liberty Cap, Phrygian Cap, Silver Denarius, Jupiter

Antony & Cleopatra Coin

Octavian defeats Mark Antony & Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium • Battle of Actium Silver Legion Coin struck from Silver supplied by Cleopatra.

Mark Antony Coin, Cleopatra Coin, Battle of Actium, Legion Coins, Augustus, End of Republic, Death of Antony & Cleopatra

14 Roman Empire

Roman Empire Augustus

Octavian – Emperor Augustus quality Gold & Silver Coins • Propaganda on Augustan Coins – CAESAR DIVI F(ilius) & IMP(erator) • Bronze Sestertius • Foundation of Roman Empire • Iberia Silver Refining & Pollution in Greenland • Gladiators: Entertainment for the Masses

Roman Empire, Octavian Coin, Augustus Coin, Egypt Capta Coin, Augustus Statue, Roman Egypt, Bronze Sestertius Coin, Bronze Sestertius SC Coin

Roman Banking System

High Interest Loans to Poor• Caesar’s Debt & Cisalpine Gaul • Social Unrest – Loan Forgiveness • Continuous War with Parthia/Sassanians that lasts nearly 700 Years • China – Mediterranean Silk Road brings Silks, China, Spices, etc to Rome • Tiberius lacking Metal overstrikes Augustan Coins

Roman Banking System, Tiberius Coin, Germanicus Coin, Gaius Caligula Coin, Gladiators

Trajan – Peak of Empire

Herodotus • Dacian leader Burebista & Decebalus • Asian Steps • Massive Gold & Silver booty from Dacia • Precious metal coining increases the Money Supply causing Inflation • Peak of Roman Empire

Trajan Dacia Coin, Dacian War, Trajan crosses Danube, Trajan Augur, Second Dacian War

Decline of Empire

Lack of Gold & Silver Coin • Hadrian • Antoninus Pius • Septimius Severus • Further Decline & Debasement of Silver Denarius • Elite Accumulate Estates run by Slaves & refuse to Pay Taxes • The Elite Families assume Government Positions to the Benefit of their Families

Decline of Roman Empire, Aelius Coin, Antoninus Coin, Septimius Coin

Debasement of Silver Denarii

Division of Empire • Solidus & Money supply Problems • 0.02% Silver Billion Coins replace Silver Coins • “From an Empire of Gold to one of Rust & Iron” • Debasement of Declining Empire Currency • Barbarian Incursions & Tribute in Gold Coins • Roman Empire’s Population Collapse • Gold Stater

Debasement of Silver Denarii Coins, Debasement of US Dollar, Rome’s Population Collapse, Gold Stater

Barbarians Enter Empire

German Tribes cross Frozen Rhine • Economic Decay • Rome’s Army hires Barbarians Mercenaries for their Elite Legions • Decline of Roman Mining • Barbarian Pressures

Barbarians on the Move, Roman Gaul, Germanic Tribes join Roman Army

Elites Dominate & Decline

Greed & Corruption of Elite • Irrigation Systems not Maintained • Spread of Malaria South of Rome • Roman Government Moves to Milan • Roman Church under Pope rules Rome • Western Empire withers Away • Frequent Pandemics • Plague of Justinian

Great Plague of Justinian, Roman Birth Rate Collapse, Decline & Collapse of Rome, Eternal Rome

15 Judaea

Judaea Capta Coins

Judaea Chronology • Levant • Canaanites • Sea Peoples • Simon Maccabeus • Seleucid King of Syria • Pompey the Great Invades Jerusalem • Silver Shekel Coin • Temple Money • Vespasian • Jewish-Roman Wars • Flavius Josephus • Bar Kokhba Revolt • Destruction of Temple • Judaea Capta Coins • Arch of Titus • Kitos War

Judaea Chronology, Judea Capta Coin, Vespasian Judea Capta Coin, Shekel Coin, Simon Maccabeus Shekel Coin, Arch of Titus Rome Triumphal Procession, Jewish Roman Wars, Kitos War, Bar Kokhba Revolt

16 Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire – Solidus Coin

Diocletian Divides Empire • Diocletian persecution of Christians • Silver Coin Debasement • Constantine the Great & New Rome • Labarum • Monetary Reforms • Constantine seizes Precious Metals from Pagan Temples • Constantine adopts Christianity • Nicaean Christianity • Gold Solidus Trade Currency

Eastern Roman Empire, Constantinople, Solidus, Byzant, Constantine & Licinius, New Rome, Byzantine Empire Map, Kingdom of Theodoric Map, Vandals, Constantine Monetary Reforms, Precious Metal Confiscation, Labarum Standard, Roman Legion Eagle Standard

Fall of Byzantium

Byzantine Gold Coins • Eastern Orthodox Church • Roman Church • Crusades • Civil Wars • Ottoman Turks • Byzantine Civil Service • Byzantium Major Slave Trading Port • Diplomacy a Form of Warfare • Shift of Power to Ottomans • Fall of Constantinople 1453 • Ottomans Successors to Roman Empire • Mehmed II; “Kaysar-i Rum” • Vlad III – Dracula “the Impaler” – Voivode of Wallachia

Fourth Crusade, Rise of Ottoman Empire, Fall of Constantinople 1453

17 Muslim Empires – Gold Dinar

Decline of Byzantium • Muhammad • Spread of Islam • Sassanian Empire Falls • Constantinople Falls • Centuries of Conflict • Arabs take Spain • Arabs confront Franks • Arabs confront Chinese • Gold Dinar Trade Currency • Mongol Empire – Genghis Khan • Mali Empire Gold • China Yuan Dynasty 1271-1366 – Kubli Khan • Crusades • Ottoman Empire (Osman I) – 1299-1922 – Over 600 Years • Mogul Empire – 1526-1857 • Shah Abbas the Great • Timur Tamerlane

Muslim Empires, Gold Dinar Coin, Seljuks Map, Mohammed, Arab Islam Expansion Map, Medina Map

18 Dark & Middle Ages

Late Antiquity c311-c565 • Dark Ages c565-1000 • Rise of Nation States c1000-c1200 • Late Middle Ages c1200-c1453 • Lack of Metal – Decline of Coinage • Feudal System – Nobility under Allegiance to a King hold Estates • Estates are worked by indentured serfs • Gold Florin • Gold Ducat • Goldsmith • Gold Bezant

Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Late Antiquity, Rise of Nation States, Florence Florin Coin, Venice Gold Ducat Coin, Gold Florin Coin

Charlemagne Standard Coins

Monetary Reforms • Revival of Silver Coinage • Charlemagne’s Silver Denier & English Silver Penny adopted by Offa, King of Mercia • Arab Gold Dinar • Chinese Paper Receipts • Medieval Mining

Charlemagne Coin, Charlemagne Monetary System, Holy Roman Empire, Death of Charlemagne 814 Map, Muslim Territories Map, Austrasia Map, Neustria Map

Nation States & International Banking

Prospecting & Revival of Mining • Banking/Pawnshops • Knights Templar “bankers” – First Multinational Organization • Letters of Credit • Moneyer – Coin Maker • Gold Augustale – First major Gold Coin • Emergence of Florentine (Florin), Genovese (Genovino), & Venetian (Ducat) Gold Trade Coins • Export of Silver Coins to Muslim Areas • Coins & Commerce

Birth of Nation States, Knights Templar Banking, Knights Templar Multinational Organization

Bank Monopolies & Gold:Silver Manipulation

Bank Monopolies – financing seed for farmers – control canal barges • Gold Florin • Republic of Venice & Gold Ducat • Gold Replaces Silver as Monetary Unit • Italian Bankers Dominate • Emergence of Nation States • Mini-Ice Age • Great Famine • Currency Speculation • Genoese War • Bullion Ducats

Mini Ice Age, European Famine, Bank Collapse, Black Death, Gold:Silver Ratio Manipulation, Venetian Gold:Silver Ratio, Farming

Black Death

Population Peak of Europe • Banking Speculation & Collapse • Economic Depression • Gold:Silver Ratio Manipulation • Bullion Famine • Black Death leads to a Power Shift to Towns • Power shift from landed Estates helps develop industrial wealth leading to Capitalism & the Renaissance

Florentine Bank Collapse, European Financial Crash, Black Death 1348-1350, Bubonic Plague, Italian City States Banking Regulations, Banking Speculation

Medici Bank

Banks go Bankrupt • Boccaccio, Decameron & Black Death • Medici Bank & Florence • Precious Metal Famine • Portuguese off Gold Coast • Fall of Constantinople • Renaissance • Edward IV raises the value of Gold & Silver Coins by 25% • Florence Issues “light” Florin • Venetian Ducat becomes Trade Currency • Mali Gold transits Sahara to Europe

Giovanni Boccaccio Decameron, “Eat, Drink, and make merry for tomorrow you may die”, Medici Bank Florence, Capitalism

Revival of Mining

Discovery of Silver Lodes • New Mining Technology • Sala Silver Mine Sweden • Underground Mining in Saxony • Panning & Sluice • Ventilation in Mine • Fire Setting • Drift Mining • Pumping • Water Wheels • Crushing – Grinding • Stamps to Pulverize Gold Ore

Agricola, Discovery of Deposits, Mining Images, Placer Deposits, Sala Silver Mine Coin

19 Golden Age of Spain

Crown Royal Silver & Gold Royalty on Mining • Numerous Spanish Bankruptcies • Spain never industrialized because it received “free” gold and silver from the Americas. Gold & Silver were Commodities • Resource misallocation by using MMT (minting debased coin) to finance the government. • American Silver was Shipped to China for Luxury Goods • Decline of Spain

Golden Age of Spain, Spanish Bankruptcies, Columbus, Ferdinand & Isabella, Flat Earth Sea Monster

20 Spanish America

Spanish America – Silver & Gold

Columbus • New World Gold & Silver • Increase of Money Supply • Transatlantic Trade – Slaves, Sugar, Gold & Silver • Aztecs • Montezuma • Incas • Inca Quipus • Quechua Indian- Poma de Ayala • Inflation • Cinnabar – Mercury • Silver Coins – Cobs, Peso (Eight Reales, Carolus Dollar, Spanish Dollar, International Trade Currency, Eight Bites) • Spanish dollars in China – Chop Marks – Cuban Inlets & Pirates

Spanish America Map, Aztec Empire Map, Inca Empire Map, Cortez, Pizarro Map, Death of Montezuma

Treasure Fleet

Treasure Fleet Dateline • Hurricanes • El Morro Castle • Punto Castle • El Principe Fort • British Attack • Cuba • Chain across Havana Harbor • Shipwrecks • El Cazador Treasure • Mexico • Isthmus of Panama • English, Dutch, & French Privateers • Spanish Colonial Revolutions • Maximilian

Spanish Treasure Fleet, El Motto Castle, British Attack Havana, Pirates, Spanish Silver Dollar, Spanish Peso, 8 Reales, Cob Coin, Inca Quipus, The Indies, El Principe Fort Havana, Portuguese Brazil, Havana Map

21 Pirates & Privateers

History of Piracy – Greece, Rome, Britain • Pirate Attack on Rome’s Port (Ostia) – Rome’s 9/11 – contributes to collapse of Roman Republic • Pompey the Great • Middle Age Pirates • Barbarossa • Sir Francis Drake • Pieter Pietrezoon Heyn • Captain Henry Jennings • Jacques de Sores • Barbary Pirates & US Marines • Chinese Pirates • Japanese Pirates

Spanish Treasure Fleet, Pirates & Privateers, History of Piracy, Greek Pirates, Roman Pirates, Chinese Pirates, Sir Francis Drake, Barbary Pirates, US Marines

22 Age of Discovery 1500-1600s

Scramble to Find Colonies for their Wealth • Spanish New World Mints • Patio Process • Potosi – Silver Mountain • Charles V Empire

Age of Discovery, Spanish Mints, Colonial Expansion

Silver Thaler: International Trade

Maria Theresa Thaler – Middle East & Africa • Silver from America increases Money Supply followed by Debt & Bankruptcy • da Vinci Coining Ideas • Siege Money during Warfare • Blondeau’s Milling Process to expose Clipping • Britain relies on Privateers to obtain Gold & Silver for Coining • Naval Power Shifts to Britain by using Pirates • Economist Jean Bodin – Inflation Theory • Gresham’s Law – Good is Displaced by Bad • First National Central Bank – Bank of Sweden – Riksbank • Mercantilism

Silver Thaler Coin Die, Maria Theresa Thaler, Economist Jean Bodin, Siege Money, Gresham’s Law, Clipping, Bank of Sweden, Riksbank

Bank of Amsterdam

Spain’s Wealth & Inflation • First National Central Bank – Bank of Sweden • Bank of Amsterdam • Tulip Mania • Kipper-und Wipperzeit – Debasing Coins – Financial Meltdown – Debasement of Silver Coins • Thirty Years War • Explosion of Debt • Nation States

Bank of Amsterdam, Bank Money, Tulip Mania, Dutch Republic, Kipper-und Wipperzeit, Mercantilism, Thirty Years War, Silver Ducatoon Coin, Clipping, Gresham’s Law, Dutch East India Company

23 Bankrupt Nations Print Money 1700s

Quantitative Easing = Printing Paper Money = Inflation
John Law – France Louis XV – Duc d’Orleans – Adam Smith – Banque Royale – Compagnie de l’Occident – Ecu de Banque – Stock Market Collapse
American Revolutionary War – Congress – Continentals – “Not Worth a Continental”
French Revolution – Louis XVI – États- Généraux – Montesquieu – Voltaire – Bourbons – Guillotine – Marie Antoinette – Tale of Two Cities
New France – Playing Card Money

Bankrupt Nations Print Money, Quantitative Easing, John Law, American Revolution, French Revolution, Paying Taxes

John Law – Quantitative Easing

John Law – Banker to Louis XV • Prints Paper Notes • Duc d’Orleans • Adam Smith • Banque Royale • The System • Compagnie de l’Occident • Ecu de Banque • Law buys France’s National Debt with Printed Bank Notes • Stock Market Collapse • Mississippi Bubble

John Law Quantitative Easing, Banking Experiment in France, Adam Smith, Law’s “The System”

John Law – Printing Money

Buoyant Stock Market Supported by Printing Paper Notes • Ownership of Silver & Gold Outlawed • Collapse of Paper Notes & Inflation • New France – Canada’s Paper Card Money • Hudson’s Bay Company • Louisiana Cent – Colonies Francais • Louis XV Crown Ecu

John Law, Quantitative Easing, Law’s Banque Generale, Banque Royale Paper Livres Notes, Louis XIV La Fronde,

Financing of American Revolution

Congress Finances Revolution by Printing Continentals “Backed by the Milled Spanish Silver Dollar” that become Worthless • Not worth a Continental

American Revolution, Devaluation of Continental Currency, Not Worth a Continental, US Revolution

Devaluation of Continental

Devaluation of the First US Paper Money • The Continental Currency • Congress, years later pays Pennies per Dollar Debt • “Not Worth a Continental” = Worthless • Federal Reserve Dollar debasement – 96% since 1913

Continental Currency, Devaluation of Continental Currency

French Revolution & Elites

Louis XVI • France Bankrupt • États- Généraux • Elite Refuse to Pay Taxes • Taxed Poor Revolt • Montesquieu • Voltaire • Bourbons • Marie Antoinette • Tale of Two Cities – Invention of Guillotine: “Liberty, equality, fraternity, or Death, which is the easiest to bestow, O’Guillotine.” Charles Dickens solving social problems.

Voltaire Wrote: “The comfort of the rich depends upon an abundant supply of poor.”

France Bankrupt, French Revolution, Etats-Generax, Three Estates, Voltaire, Bourbons, Marie Antoinette, Guillotine, Assignat, Printing Money, Hyperinflation, Napoleon

French Revolution – Paper Assignats

Printing of Assignat Paper Notes • First Limited Printing • Economy Revives • Second Printing to Help Revival • Third Printing • Fourth Printing • Mississippi Bubble • Hyperinflation & Burning of Notes to Reduce Quantity Outstanding • Napoleon takes Power – Abolishes Paper Notes – Only used Silver & Gold Coins

Napoleon said: “When a government is dependent upon bankers for money, they and not the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes.”

French Revolution

Tragic History of Paper Money

Purchasing Power of All Paper Money Goes to Zero

Tragic History of Paper Money, Chinese Paper Note, Ming Dynasty Bank Note, Printing Money

24 British Empire Industrialization

Britain World Naval Power after the Fall of Napoleon • Britain Forces China to Buy Opium • Industrial Revolutions • Colonialism & Globalization • Siberian Gold Floods Europe • Pressure on Gold & Silver Ratio

British Empire, Industrialization, Decline of Bimetallism, Russian Gold Rush, Globalization, California Gold Rush, Australian Gold Rush

Gold Rushes & Bimetallism under Pressure

Silver Demonetized • Intrinsic Value of Gold • Gold for Coins • Gold Sovereign World Trade Currency • German Empire • Franco-Prussian War • German Empire • Japan Industrializes & Becomes Pacific Sea Power • Paris Social Unrest • Adoption of Gold Standard • End of Bimetallism • US – Spanish War • US Invades the Philippines • World War I • End of the Treaty of Westphalia Concepts • US Naval World Sea Power

Gold Standard, Demonetization of Silver, Sovereign Coin, Gold Toman Coin, Egypt Gold Lira Coin

25 American Century

American Century & Socialism

Robber Barons • Century of Extremes • Rise of Socialism • Russian Unrest • Communism • US Gilded Era • US – unfettered Monopolies

American Century, Russian Revolution, Socialism & Communism, Class Struggle, Reichsbank Banknote

Century of Extremes: Panic of 1907

US Gold Standard • Panic of 1907 Bankrupts some Banks & Panics the Elite • Bankers Lobby for a Central Bank – that they control • WW I • End of Russian Empire • German Post WWI Inflation • The Great Depression • Rise of Hitler • Ownership of Gold Outlawed in US • World War II • Keynes & Debauching of Currency

Century of Extremes, Panic of 1907, Panic of 2007, WWI

Federal Reserve Debasements 1913-2020

Perpetual Paper Money Printing • Precious Metal Price Manipulation • Trump Explaining Debt: “Print money to pay back debt.” • Greenspan: “Deficit spending is simply a scheme for the “hidden” confiscation of wealth. Gold stands in the way of this insidious process. Gold stands as a protector of property rights.”

Federal Reserve Debasement, Fiat Currency, Inflation of Banknotes, Destiny of all Paper Money, Perpetual Inflation, US World Power

26 History of British Coins

British Coins & Sterling

Pre-Roman Gold & Silver Rings & Neck Torques • Celtic Coins • Boudica • Roman Coins • Roman Mining • To World Naval Power • International Trade Gold Sovereign • Decline after WW I

History of English Coins, Celtic Coins, Britannia, Roman Mining in Britain

Post-Roman Revival – Offa Coins

British Isles Coins Saxon Coins • Wessex • Anglo Saxon Invasions • Offa Silver Penny & 10 Pence = 1 Shilling & 20 Shillings = One Pound • Alfred the Great • Vikings • Norman Conquest • Merchant Debt Collection • First Mining Commission since Roman Times • Gold Noble • Mini Ice Age • Tally Stick • Edward III Bankrupts Italian Banks • First Sovereign • Bimetallic Ratio Problem • Monetary Inquiry • Recoinage

Offa of Mercia Coins, OFFA REX, Silver Penny Coin, Pound Sterling Monetary System

Henry VIII & Debasement of Coins

Wolsey, Master of the Mint • Further Debasement of Silver Coins by over 75% • Forced Loans from Merchants & Pawnshops • Bimetallism Problems • Quality Coins Lost to the Continent

Henry VII Coins, Henry VII Groat, Henry VII Gold Sovereign, House of Tudor, Wolsey Master of Mint, Henry VIII Tournai Coin

Piracy & Start of Empire

Elizabeth I • Pirates provide Silver & Gold for Coinage • Spain & French Merchant Ships attacked by Privateers • Colonial Expansion • James I & Charles I Gold:Silver ratio Monetary Problems • Struggle between King & Parliament • English Civil War • Cromwell takes Power • Debasement of Coins – Massive Inflation • Free Trade in Precious Metals • Free Coin • Recoinage • Moneychangers • Goldsmiths (Bankers) Clip Coins & export Quality Coins • International Trade Payments using Gold & Silver • East India Company becomes de facto ruler of Northern India – grows opium that is smuggled to China.

Philip & Mary Gold Angel Coin, Sir Francis Drake in California, Elizabeth I Half Pound Coin, Sir Francis Drake Map, Queen Elizabeth I

Bank of England Banknotes

Bank of England • Banknotes backed by Gold • Bubble Act • Sir Isaac Newton & Gold:Silver ratio favoring Gold • South Sea Bubble • Capture of French Treasure Fleet increases Money Supply • Deficit problems • Bank of England prints Paper Notes with no Gold Backing • BofE notes sporadically not Convertible for Gold or Silver • South Sea Bubble • Sir Isaac Newton – Master of the Mint – Establishes Gold:Silver ratio that favors Gold

Bank of England Established 1694, Bank of England Five Shillings Dollar Coin, Letter of Credit, Promissory Note Act 1704, Bank of England Banknotes

Gold:Silver Ratios

Underweight Coins – Money Changers (banks) Export Quality Coin • Recoinage Bimetallic Problems • American Revolution • Minting of Silver Coins Suspended • Bank Restrictions • Monometallic Theory • Boulton’s Soho Mint • The Copper Cartwheel Coin • Bronze/Brass Private Token Money • Coinage Law 1816 • Britain moves to Gold Standard • New Gold Sovereign Replaces Gold Guinea

George III 5 Guineas Coin, George II Gold Sovereign Coin, Underweight Coins

End of Empire

Gold Sovereign World Trade Currency • Britain International Hegemon – rules the waves & makes the rules • Opium Wars • Chinese Opium Trade provides Silver • Coinage Act 1870 • Peak of Empire 1871 • End of Pound convertibility to Gold • WWI – End of Empire • Transfer of Power to US • US Dollar Becomes International Trade Currency

Peak of British Empire, Canada 50¢ Coin, US Dollar becomes Trade Currency, Battle of Belmont - Defeat of Boers

27 US Dollar Reserve Currency

US Dollar – Trade Currency

US Dollar – International Trade Currency • Bankers’ Federal Reserve • End of Gold Standard & Silver Coins • Corporate Bailouts & Quantitative Easing & Printing Money • Post Capitalism

John Pierpont Morgan, Robber Baron, Panic of 1907, US Dollar International Trade Currency
John Pierpont Morgan, Thomas Jefferson & Banks Issuing Money, First Bank of the United States

Colonial Currency

Wampum • Counterfeiting of Wampum by Colonists • Wampum Market Collapse • Massachusetts Bay Colony Coins • Spanish Milled Dollar – Eight Bites • Colonies Print Notes that Inflate Away • Slaves considered an Asset by New York Bankers

Colonial Currency, Wampum, Piece of Eight, Massachusetts Paper Notes, Slaves to be Sold, Massachusetts Bay Company, John Hall Mint Silver Sixpence, Spanish Milled Dollar Coin, Cut Bits

Benjamin Franklin – Paper Money

Benjamin Franklin favors Paper Notes because they help “Business” • Franklin said the British Empire “was the greatest political structure human wisdom ever yet erected” • Revolution • Continental Congress 1775 • “Continentals” finance Revolution • “Continentals” backed by Spanish Milled Dollar • Devaluation of the Continental the first US Paper Money • Early US coins

Revolution, Benjamin Franklin & Paper Money, Virginia Currency, Financing Revolution, Continental Congress

Gold Rushes

Coinage Act 1834 • Panic of 1837 • Appalachian Gold & Silver Rushes • First Gold Coin – the Brasher Doubloon • California Gold Rush • California Fractional Coins • Pacific Gold Standard during Civil War

Coinage Act of 1834, Appalachian Gold & Silver, Morrill Tariffs, North Carolina Gold

Civil War Paper Money

Union prints Greenbacks • Shin Plasters • Fractional Paper Notes • Demand Notes • Running the Press • Price of Gold Rises • Gold Coins Disappear • The North Won & Greenbacks were Redeemable for Gold at a Later Date

US Civil War Banknotes, Greenbacks, Legal Tender Act, National Banking Act, Legal Tender, Uncle Sam Prints Banknotes, Samuel P. Chase Treasury Secretary, Demand Notes 1861, Unites States Notes 1862

Tobacco Currency

Confederate South print Greybacks • Counterfeit Notes printed by the North • Postal Currency • Copperheads • Tobacco Currency • Rag Money • South Lost War & Confederate Notes become Worthless

Copperheads, Tobacco Currency, Rag Money, Postage Currency, Daniel Webster Secretary of State

Robber Baron Era

Robber Barons manipulate Markets • Overprint Shares • Manipulate Prices • Corner Gold • Social Unrest & Strikes • Silver Trade Dollar for Chinese Trade • Gold Manipulation – 1869 Black Friday • Long Depression 1873 • Jay Gould • Gold Standard Act 1900 • JP Morgan • Crash of 1901- Speculative Banking Crisis • Panic of 1907 • Bankers Lobby for National Bank

Robber Baron Era, Long Depression 1873-1896, Gold Half Dollar Coin, Jay Gould Robber Baron, Gold Standard Act

Federal Reserve

Panic of 1907 • Aldrich-Vreeland Act 1908 • Creation of Federal Reserve – to protect banks • Fed owned by Banks • Social Unrest • JP Morgan & Co. Bomb kills15+ • President McKinley Assassinated • Companies use Strike Breakers

Creation of Federal Reserve

1929 & Gold Confiscation

International Monetary Devaluations • Trade Wars • FDR Banking Holiday • Executive Order 6102 1933 – Confiscation of Gold • Slackers prosecuted • Fort Knox Gold Depository • Fort Knox has never been Audited • Food Stamps issued to Help Farmers • Depression ends with World War II • Bretton Woods Agreement • US Dollar becomes World Reserve Currency • Dollar backed by Gold at $35 per Ounce • Start of Pax America & US Golden Age

FDR Seizure of Gold 1933, FDR Executive Order 6102 1933, Emergency Bank Act 1933

Silver Panic 1960s

Vietnam War increases Debt & Inflation • Hoarding of Silver Coins • Silver Panic • Silver Reaches $1.29 – the coin melting price • Coinage Act 1965 eliminates Silver Coins • Hunt Brothers are Squeezed • Silver Coins disappear after 2500 Years

Silver Coin Panic 1960s, Kennedy Half Dollar, Silver Certificates, Coinage Act of 1965, Hunt Brothers, Hoarding of Silver, Silver Peace Dollar, Run on Silver

Gold Window Closed 1971

Nixon closes Gold Window 1971 • End of US Golden Age • US sells Bullion Coins

Nixon Closes Gold Window 1971, Charles de Gaulle, End of Gold Standard, Smithsonian Agreement, Official Gold Holdings

Panic of 2007

With the Imminent collapse of the World economies the White House Panics

Paulson said: “We have an archaic financial regulatory structure that came in place after the Depression; it really needs to be rebuilt.” Banks lobbied against change because it would affect their business • Bankers Not Jailed • Fed Prints Billions to bail-out Bankrupt Banks & Corporations • Home owners had houses seized by corporations with access to cheap money • US Dollars have value only to the extent that they are strictly limited in supply. Ben Bernanke 2002

Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, Panic of 2007, The Great Recession, Glass-Steagall Act 1934

Devaluation of US$

US Dollar purchasing Power Decline • Dilemma of US Dollar being a Reserve Currency • Printing of Money to Finance Deficits • Bailouts of Corporate America while the people fend for themselves.

Greenspan, Ben Bernanke, Federal Reserve, US Dollar Purchasing Power, Countrywide Mortgage, Bush Whitehouse Speech 2008, Reserve Currency Problems, International Liquidity

28 Age of Populism & Extremes

Shay’s Rebellion • Populist Ron Paul – “US Corporations export Jobs” • Hillary Clinton’s famous: “The Deplorables” • The Rise of Fake News • The insanity of Crowds • “Detestation of the high is the involuntary homage of the low.” Charles Dickens

Populism: Ambiguous term applied to restive political mass movements whose common denominator is the resentment of the elite class.

Populism, Disruption, Extremes, Robespierre, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Mob Rule, Plato & Epistemology, “The Deplorables”, Shay’s Rebellion, Growing Inequality, William Jennings Bryan, Ross Perot, The American Dream, World Government,

29 China 2700 Years of Coins

Regional Wars • Unification of China • Imperial China • Casting Brass Coins • Large Population • China as a Nation State • Heritage of Qin & Han Empires • The Great Wall • Mandate of Heaven • Chinese Money – Cowrie Shells – Knife Money – Spade Money – Gold Ying Yuan Pieces – Jade Disks – Pearls – Silver Objects – Ant Nose Money – Bell Money – Leather • Banliang (Cash) Coins • Chinese Population Growth • Emperor Wang Mang outlaws private gold • Early Fiat Token Coins

Napoleon, in 1817, said…
“Let China sleep, for when she wakes, she will shake the World” … “in a war with China, Britain would doubtlessly, at first, succeed” … “but China will learn from these defeats” … “and decide to render themselves equal to them and build a fleet that will eventually defeat their Western adversaries.”

China 2700 Years of Coins, Middle Kingdom, China Map 1602, Wanguo Qiantu Map, How China Sees the World Map, Knife Money, Cowrie Shells, Spade Money, Cash Coins

Roman & Han Chinese Empires

Roman & Chinese Coins • Rome: Struck Gold, Silver, Brass Coins • China: Cast Brass Coins • Silver Sycee & Gold traded by Weight • Jade traded by Quality Characteristics • Value of Gold & Silver • Cast weighed Silver Ingots • Tea Brick Trade Good • Sui Dynasty • Tang Currency • Tang Taxes • Promissory Notes & Bank Notes • Tang Coin Melting • Copper Restrictions • Song Paper Money • Export & smuggling of Coins to Japan • Song Iron Coins

Han Empire & Roman Empire Map, Han Dynasty, Tang Paper Notes, Cast Coins

Kublai Khan Paper Money

Silk Road to Persia & Constantinople • Mongol Empire – Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Khan unites China • Bamboo Money – Silk Skein Money • Marco Polo describes Kublai Khan’s Paper Money • Inflation • Selling of Gold & Silver by Foreign Traders • Great Fleet travels to Africa • Japanese Piracy • Fall of Yuan Dynasty

Kublai Khan’s Paper Money, Silk Skein Money, Printing Paper Money - Marco Polo

Opium Wars

Britain, was on an effective Gold Standard & China was on the Silver Standard • Britain needed Silver to buy Chinese Tea, Silk, & China • To help its Balance of Trade and acquire Silver Britain plants Opium in Northern India near Calcutta • The East India Company operates Opium Plantations using indentured/slave labor • China was not a major Opium consuming Nation but the EIC and the British Navy Smuggle Opium into China in Exchange for Silver Coin (mainly Spanish Pesos & Ingots) • This Silver paid for British Imports from China • American Clipper Ships enter into the China “Trade” • Prominent American Families participated in the China Trade • China resisted. West declared the Opium Wars, which the Chinese Lost • Colonization of Parts of China • Taiping Rebellion • Boxer Rebellion • End of Qing Dynasty

Opium Wars, China Trade, Piracy, Treaty of Nanking, Boxer Rebellion

Foreign Coins China

Production of Coins • Spanish Silver Carolus Dollars (with chop marks) • Mexican Silver Dollar • US Silver Dollar • US Trade Dollar • Saigon Dollar • Japanese Silver Yen/Dollar • Hong Kong Dollar • Indian Silver Dollar • Maria Theresa Thaler • End of Qing Dynasty • Republic of China • Sino-Japanese War • People’s Republic of China • Chinese Communist Party – a new Dynasty

Foreign Coins in China, Coin Production in China, Spanish Carolus Dollars, US Trade Dollar, Japanese Gold Mines, Japan Gold Koban

Made in China 2025

New Chinese plan for self-sufficiency & domination of Industrial Sectors • The World has a Thucydides Trap Reaction

Made in China 2025

China Silk Road v2.0

Overland Heartland Silk Road protected from Sea Powers • South Sea Route • Arctic Sea Route • Silk Road Area population of 4.4 Billion • 1/3 of World Economy • Oil & Natural Gas Pipelines

One Belt One Road Map. New Silk Road Map, “The Heartland” Map

30 Theories of World Power

Mahan’s Sea Power vs The Heartland

Geopolitics • Sea Power vs. The Heartland • Roosevelt’s White Fleet • Mahan’s Sea Power • Annex Hawaii • Britain (World Sea Power) Invades Afghanistan (primitive tribes) and is Defeated • Afghanis were never defeated by a Sea Power • Genghis Khan Mongol Empire • Russo-Japanese War

Theories of World Power, Sea Power vs Land Power, Genghis Khan Coin, Japanese Navy, A. T. Mahan’s Sea Power Theory, Roosevelt’s White Fleet

Mackinder’s The Heartland Land Power

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory • Heartland dominates the World • Steppe People of Heartland • Geographic Perspective • Nicholas Spykman – Rimland Theory • Hun expansion into Roman Empire from the Heartland • Great Eurasian Heartland • Time span of Land & Sea Empires

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory
Who controls Eastern Europe rules the Heartland
Who controls the Heartland rules the World-Island
Who rules the World-Island rules the World

Zbigniew Brzezinski, wrote in Foreign Affairs, in 1997 that; “the US should pay attention of a possible cooperation between China, Russia, and Iran because they might dominate Eurasia.”

Halford John Mackinder’s Heartland Theory Map, The Heartland Pivot, Steppe People, Hun Migrations

31 Cashless Society

Elimination of Currency • No more $1000 or $10,000 Notes • Gregory Mankiw’s withdrawal scheme of US Paper Notes • The risks of No Currency in times of Emergency – power failure, civil strife, etc.

Cashless Society, Security with Cashless Society

32 Cryptocurrency

Bitcoin – Nakamoto Paper

Launch of Bitcoin • Small Units of Bitcoin • Bubbles Timeline – Tulip Bubble – Mississippi Bubble – South Sea Bubble • Beanie Baby Bubble – Dot -com Bubble – US Housing Bubble • Mining of Bitcoin • Miner payment Scale • Miner transaction Fees • Encryption • Catastrophe Theory • Digital Cash Transactions • Blockchain Forks • Bitcoin Cash • Bitcoin Price • Key Cracking • Quantum Computing • Tumbling • Electricity Costs • Mt. Gox • Facebook’s LIBRA • ICO – Initial Coin Offering • Cryotocurrency a Bubble?

Cryptocurrency, Satoshi Nakamoto Paper, Bitcoin

Bitcoin Timeline

Cryptocurrency Timeline, Genesis Block, Two Pizzas, Blockchain Fork, Units of Bitcoin, Mining Bitcoin, Libra, Mt. Gox

33 California Geology

Paleozoic Eon • Cretaceous Period • Tertiary Period

Hydraulic Mining California, California Gold Rush Geology

Sierra Nevada Gold Geology

Sierra Nevada Uplift • New River Direction • Erosion & New Placer Deposits • Glacial Action • Californian Gold Deposition • River Valley Lava Flows • Ancient River Channels Filled • Lava Caps • Volcano Core • Landscape Erosion

Geology of Sierra Nevada, Ancient Rivers, Tertiary Period, Old Volcanoes, Lava Flows, River Gold Deposits, Lava Caps & Gold

California Gold Deposits

Ancient River Placers • Present River Channels • Elevated Ancient Deposits • Yuba Valley Erosion • Tertiary Riverbed Uplift • Tertiary Shale • Placer Classification • Sierra Nevada Placer Deposits • Table Mountain Geology • Tuolune County • Spanish Peak • Mother Lode • Sandbar Deposit

California Geology, Gold Deposits, Ancient River Channel Gold, Tertiary Gravels

34 California Gold Rush

California Gold Chronology • Sir Francis Drake; “They assert that the land is rich and gold.” • Mineral Report 1847 • Malaria Illness Months • Reports from US Consul at Monterey: “… vast tract of land containing gold.” • Sailors abandon Ships to go to Gold Fields • Private striking of California Gold Coins • Mormon Miners strike Mormon Gold Coins

Annual Production of California Gold 1840-1965
Annual Production of California Gold 1840-1965


California Gold Chronology • Sir Francis Drake; “They assert that the land is rich and gold.” • Mineral Report 1847 • Malaria Illness Months • Reports from US Consul at Monterey: “… vast tract of land containing gold.” • Sailors abandon Ships to go to Gold Fields • Private striking of California Gold Coins • Mormon Miners strike Mormon Gold Coins

California Gold Rush Migration, J. D. Dana Minerology,

Getting to California

Getting to California • Crossing the “Great American Desert” – Isthmus of Panama – Cape Horn • Glowing reports on Gold Region • Mining promotion/scams • California Gold floods World – Increase in money supply & inflation • Famous Nuggets • Violence • Water Claims • Claim System • Sutter’s Mill • Stream Flow Factors • Hydraulic Washing • Diary of a ‘49er • Flash Floods

Getting to California, Crossing Great American Desert, Crossing the Isthmus of Panama, Travelling around Cape Hor

Mercury Amalgamation

Amalgamation • Retorts • California Gold Coins • San Francisco Mint • Leaving California • Hydraulic Mining • Transporting Gold • Panic of 1857

Native Mercury, Amalgamation, Gold Retort, Amalgam Retort

35 Cariboo British Columbia

Cariboo Gold Rush – British Columbia

Vancouver • Arrival of California Argonauts • Manifest Dynasty • Fraser River Gold Rush • Indian Troubles • Small Pox • Prospecting Strategy • Coarse Gold Upstream • Rush to Find Source • Sandbars & Float Gold • Cycle of Stream Erosion • Grubstake • Pack Horses • Claim Jumping • Cycle of Erosion • Oregon Boundary Dispute • Cariboo Geology • Crossing Continental Divide • Pay Streaks • Barkerville • Cariboo Cameron dug to depth of 80 feet • Slough Creek Mining Problems

Cariboo Gold Rush, Gravels on Bedrock, Pay Streak, Cariboo Gold

36 Alaska & Klondike Geology

Before Tertiary & Pleistocene Period • Peneplain • Glacial Periods • Classification of Alaska & Yukon Placers • Alaska Placer Gold Characteristics • History of Alaska Gold • Fortymile River • Klondike • Nome & Seward Peninsula • Fairbanks District

Alaska & Klondike Geology, Alaska Gold Rush, Classification of Placers

37 Fortymile River Gold Rush

Fortymile River Basin Geology • Glacial Action • Volcanic Ash & Terraces • Bench Placers • Source of Gold • North Fork River • South Fork River • Streams & Placers • Creek & Valley Deposits • Alluvial Gravel Types

Fortymile Gold Rush, Forty Mile River, Fortymile Gold Geology

Fortymile River Alaska

Yukon Gold Country • Forty Mile Trading Post • Sixteen Liars & Bonanza Bar • Klondike Discovery • Finding Vein by Loaming • Study of Float • Winter Panning • Mining Laws • Float • High Terrace Gravels • Alluvial Gravels

Yukon Gold Country, Fortymile & Klondike Discoveries

38 The Klondike

Chilcoot Pass • Yukon River Mining • Klondike Gold Rush • Over 10 Million oz have been Recovered • Placer Classification • Bench/Terrace Gravel • Creek Gravels • River Bars • Placer Deposits • Placer Evaluation

Klondike Gold Rush, Klondike Map

Bonanza Creek

Bonanza Creek Tributary of the Klondike River • Dawson City • Bonanza Creek Hotel • Greatest Gold Rush in Canada • Comparative placer deposits – Sierra Nevada – Klondike – Nome Alaska • Gold Hill • Eldorado Creek – Cheechaco Hill • Drift Adit • Dredging • North-West Mounted Police • Retort Sponge Gold • Mud Box

Klondike Gold Rush, Bonanza Creek Gold, Eldorado Fork Gold

39 Seward Peninsula & Nome Beach

Seward Peninsula – Alaska Gold Rush

Geology – Mesozoic Era – Early Tertiary • Tertiary Lava Flows • Pleistocene Glacial Activity • Ice Age Seward Peninsula forming of Bendeleben Mountains • Anvil & Glacier Creek Placer Gold • Nome Beach • Costal Plain Gold Deposits • Beach Placers • Influx of Prospectors • Legality of Claims & Claim Jumping • Miners’ Meeting • Tundra Claims • Nome Cost of Living

Seward Peninsula & Nome Beach Gold Rush, Nome Beach Gold, Nome Gold Placers

Nome Beach Placers

Testing Placer Gravels • Third Beach Placers • Test Pits • Beach Gold Characteristics • Coastal Erosion • Nome East & West Beaches • Lowest Beach • Submarine Placers • Delta Placers • Braided Stream

Nome Beach Map, Lowest Beach Gold, Shore Gold Placer, Braided Stream Gold

40 Fairbanks District Gold

Bonnifield Placer District • Kantishna Placer District • Totatlanika Creek • Homestake Creek • Jumbo Dome

Fairbanks Gold District Map

41 Dredging

Bucket Dredge

California River Pacer Gold • Bucket Line Dredge • Dragline Washing Plant • Trommel • Dragline • California-Type Dredge • Cutter Dredge

Gold Bucket Dredge, Gold Bucket Line Dredge, Trommel, California River Gold Dredge

Suction Dredge

Weekend Hydraulic Floating Dredge • Float • Pontoons • Engine • Pumping Water • Priming • Venturi Pressure Jet • Weekend Dredge Sluice • Hypothermia

Hydraulic Suction Dredge, Diving Suction Dredge, Dredge Preparation, Priming Pump, US Army Back Rack

42 Trommel Drum Sluice

Weekend Mobile Trommel • Mining Cylinder Trommel • Size Classification • Mesh Size • Scrubber • Screen

Trommel, Drum Sluice, Weekend Trommel, Mesh Size

Panning – Working Long Tom

Working Long Tom • Long Tom Setup • Classification of Gold • Mesh Size • Steps in Panning

Panning for Gold, Steps in Panning, Gold Particle Size
Working a Long Tom for Gold

43 Comstock Lode Nevada

Geology • Hydrothermal Activity • Faults • Blue-Black Mud • Bounded Silver • Sulfides • Mining Law • Grosh Brothers • Mining Comstock Lode • Ophir Claim • Washoe Process • Cyanide Leaching

The great “Comstock Lode” stretched its opulent length straight through Virginia City from North to south, and every mine on the lode was in diligent process of development. The Gould & Curry Mine alone employed six hundred and seventy-five men… Often we felt our chairs jar, and heard the faint boom down in the bowels of the earth… Mark Twain 1872

Comstock Silver Mine, Comstock Geology Map, Comstock Lode

Comstock Mine Cross Section

Square Set Timber Construction • Veins • Tools • Lifts

Comstock Square Set Timber Framing

Working Mine

Lifting Cage • Low Grade Ore • Flooding • Ventilation • Hot Water Death • Vapor • Cave-Ins • Fire • Sutro Tunnel • Virginia City Fire

Comstock Big Bonanza, Comstock Silver Mining Technology

Transporting Ore

Hauling Ore • Horse Teams • Road Maintenance • Camels • Stage Coach Robbers

Comstock Transporting Silver Ore, Comstock Horse Teams, Comstock Hauling Silver Ore

44 Historic Mines

Historic Underground Mines

Milling • Ore Refining Sequence • Chemical Extraction • Leaching • Lost Horse Gold Mine

Historic Gold Mines, Thaler Mine Silver Coin, Agricola Gold Ore Stamp Battery, Feeding Gold Ore into Battery

Gold Ore Crusher

1500s Mechanized Gold Extraction • Mining Compass • Dumpy Level & Surveying • Jaw Crusher • Arrastra • Ball Mill • Rod Mill

Mechanized Gold Extraction 1500s, Swedish Mining Compass, Lost Horse Gold Mine, Mining Dumpy Level

Chemical Extraction

Washoe Process • Chlorination • Cyanide Process • Bubble Flotation • Grinding • Slime

Chemical Extraction of Precious Metals, Washoe Process, Chlorination, Gold Cyanide Process, Flotation, Slime Separation, Grinding Ore


Leaching • Crushing • Milling • Cyanide Process • Gold-Cyanide Solution • Agitator Tank • Sulfides • Heap Leaching • Vat Leaching

Gold Leaching, Steps in Gold Leaching, Crushing Gold Ore, Ball Mill, Agitator Tank, Gold-cyanide Solution, Steel Jaw Crusher

Milling Ore

Crushing • Gyratory Crusher

Crushing Gold Ore, Gold Ore Gyrator Crusher, Ore Conveyor Belt

Desert Dry Washer

Winnowing • Dry Screening • Dry Washer • Dry Vacuuming • Dry Placers • Placer Site Logbook Entries

Desert Panning, Gold Dry Washing, Gold Dry Vacuuming, Gold Winnowing, Gold Dry Panning, Coolgardie, San Bernardino dry placer gold deposits

Empires & Money: Gold, Paper Money, Crypto – Money & Fall of Empires • Paul Tawrell • ISBN 978 1 896713 02 1 • Format: 8.375” x 10.875” • Page Count: 384 pages • Four Color: 16 pages & Duotone: 368 pages • US Price: $39.95 • OVER 4000 Images © 2020/2021 Leonard Paul Tawrell